Coral Reef
 

Constitution

(Constitution of the Japanese Coral Reef Society)

November 2, 1997 Enactment
November 1, 1999 Amendment: Fiscal year change
November 1, 2002 Amendment: Change in the bylaws of the board of councilors
November 13, 2004 Amendment: Revisions of Article 10, 12, 14, 16, 17, 19, enactment of the bylaws 5 and 6 and enactment of the presidential election bylaws
November 3, 2011 Amendment: The bylaws of council election, the bylaws of presidential election, the bylaws of the JCRS Awards, amendment of the Best Paper Award, enactment of the bylaws of the Kawaguchi Award
November 5, 2011 Amendment: Revisions of Article 8, 14, 17, 19, 21, 27, and 32
November 24, 2012 Amendment: Revision of Article 8
November 1, 2013 Amendment: Enactment of the bylaws of the Coral Reef Conservation Award
December 14, 2013 Amendment: Enactment of the bylaws of the Distinguished Service Award

 

CHAPTER 1. GENERAL PROVISIONS

Article 1 The name of this society is called the Japanese Coral Reef Society.

Article 2 The aim of the society is to contribute for the advancement of coral reef research, as well as for the development and the dissemination of interdisciplinary knowledge.

Article 3 The society carries out the following activities in order to achieve the objectives specified in Article 2:

  1. Organizing Study Groups and lectures on coral reefs
  2. Publications of periodicals and academic publications 
  3. Commendation of research achievement and promotion of research 
  4. Other activities which are necessary to achieve the aim of the society

The society shall establish a secretariat. The address of the secretariat shall be provided in the supplemental provisions.

Article 5 The fiscal year of the society begins on July 1 and end on June 30 every year.

Chapter 2. Membership

Article 6 Members of the society shall be individuals or institutions interested in coral reefs and agree with the purpose of the society. The memberships are classified into the following seven categories:

  1. Individual membership: Those who pay the annual dues of 7,000 Yen
  2. Overseas membership: Those who live outside of Japan and pay the annual dues of 8,000 Yen
  3. Student Membership: Undergraduate students, graduate students and research students who pay the annual dues of 4,000 Yen
  4. Newsletter membership: Individuals who pay the newsletter membership dues of 2,500 Yen
  5. Corporate membership: Organizations which pay the annual membership dues of 12,000 Yen
  6. Supporting Membership: Individuals or organizations who pay the annual supporting membership dues of 40,000 yen or more
  7. Honorary Membership: Individuals who have significant achievement in the study of coral reefs and are recommended based on the resolution of the General Meeting. No membership dues required.

Article 7 An individual who wishes to join the society must submit the application form to the president and approved by the secretariat.

Article 8 The members have the following rights.

  1. Eligibility to run for the president (individual members only), and voting rights (excluding newsletter members and corporate members).
  2. Eligibility to run for the councilors and voting rights (excluding overseas, newsletter, corporate, supporting and honorary members).
  3. Right to attend the general meeting and right to vote (excluding newsletter and corporate members).
  4. Receive the printed version of “Journal of the Japanese Coral Reef Society” (in Japanese) for free, excluding newsletter members.
  5. Receive the electronic version of the Newsletter of Japanese Coral Reefs Society for free.
  6. Receive the printed version of the Newsletter of Japanese Coral Reefs Society for free (newsletter, supporting, corporate and honorary members only).
  7. Receive favorable deal when purchasing publications issued by the society.
  8. To be a presenter of various academic meetings hosted by the society (excluding newsletter members).
  9. Receive favorable deal on attendance fees when attending various academic meetings hosted by the society.
  10. For supporting members and corporate members, more precise information on their rights shall be described on the society’s website separately.

Article 9 Members shall pay the annual membership dues in advance, and paid membership dues are non-refundable.

Article 10 Members lose the membership due to the following reasons.

  1. Withdrawal from the society
  2. Death

Article 11 Members who wish to withdraw from the society must submit the withdrawal notice. If some dues are not paid yet, the member must pay them in full.

Article 12 The rights of the members defined in Article 8 shall be suspended if the members dishonored the society or have not paid the annual dues for more than two years. In some cases, the members may lose the membership after the vote by the Councilors.

Chapter 3. Officers, committee members and secretariat

Article 13 The officers shall consist of the president, vice president, two treasurers and no more than 30 councilors

Article 14 The officers shall be elected by the following procedure.

  1. 27 councilors shall be elected following the detailed election bylaws. All members, excluding overseas, newsletter, corporate and honorary members, shall cast secret ballots.
  2. The president shall be elected from the individual members following the election bylaws.
  3. The vice president shall be nominated from the individual members by the president.
  4. The treasurers shall be nominated by the president from the individual members who are not councilors.
  5. If the president finds it necessary, the president can appoint no more than three councilors from the individual members with the consent of the board of councilors.

Article 15 The president shall represent the society to summarize the activities of the society. The vice president shall assist the president, and if the president is unable to fulfill his or her duties, the vice president shall perform the duties.

Article 16 The members of the board of councilors and convocation of the meeting are as follows.

  1. The president, the vice president, the councilors, the chairpersons of each committee, and the secretary general compose the board of councilors which shall discuss and decide the affairs of the society specified in the constitution and bylaws.
  2. The president shall summon the board of councilors.

Article 17: The committees are organized as follows.

  1. In order to facilitate the operation of the society, committees shall be established for each category (i.e. planning, editing, election administration, and other matters).
  2. Each committee must report the status of activities and consult particularly necessary matters for the operation of the society to the board of councilors.
  3. The president shall appoint the committee chairpersons from the members. The chairperson shall hold office for two years and reassignment shall not be precluded.
  4. The president shall appoint committee members from the members of the society based on the recommendation of the committee chairperson and shall be able to commission research, office work and other duties which are necessary for the operation of the society. However, the president can appoint non-members to the committee members following the request of the committee chairperson.
  5. Each committee may appoint a vice chairperson if necessary. The vice-chairperson shall be appointed from among the members by the president following the recommendation of the committee chairperson.

Article 18 Treasurers shall audit society’s assets and activities. The result of the audit shall be reported to the General Meeting.

Article 19 Each officer shall hold office for two years. However, the officers shall serve no more than two consecutive terms.

Article 20 Officers shall serve until the successor takes office even if the term is ended.

Article 21 Resignation and replacement of officers

  1. Officers may resign during his or her term if approved by the councilors.
  2. The runners-up shall assume the vacant position. The president shall re-assign the vacant position of the vice president and treasurers. The term of the replacement officers shall be the remaining term of the predecessors.

Article 22 The secretariat shall be established to process general affairs and accounting of the society. The president shall appoint and dismiss the secretary general following the decision of the board of councilors.

Chapter 4. Meetings

Article 23 There shall be two types of general meetings: a regular general meeting and an extraordinary general meeting.

Article 24 The president convenes the regular general meeting once a year. Following issues shall be submitted to and must be approved at the regular general meeting:

  1. The previous fiscal year’s business report and financial report.
  2. The business plan and the budget of the current fiscal year.
  3. Other issues that are considered necessary by the board of councilors.

Article 25 If following issues occurred, the extraordinary general meeting must be convened by the president within 30 days of the occurrence.

  1. When the board of councilors decides that a meeting is necessary.
  2. When the treasurers recognize the necessity and request the president.
  3. When more than one third of all members (excluding newsletter and corporate members) indicate an issue to be discussed at the meeting and made a request to the president.

Article 26 Convocation of a general meeting must be notified to the members by an appropriate method at least 10 days prior to the meeting, indicating the date and time, location and issues to be discussed at the meeting.

Article 27 The general meeting shall not be valid unless more than one-fifth of the members (excluding newsletter, overseas, supporting and corporate members) attend the meeting. However, the members who are unable to attend the general meeting shall be counted as participants if their votes are commissioned to other participating members or they vote in writing on issues that are notified following the procedure of Article 26.

Article 28 Motions of a general meeting, except change in the constitution, shall be adopted if more than half of the participating members (defined by the previous article) voted for the motion, and in case of a tie, the chairperson shall have the final vote. In case of an urgent motion, which is not informed to the members following the procedure of Article 26, and voting is necessary, more than two-third of the attendees, excluding commissioned or written votes, must approve the motion.

Article 29 Operations of the board of councilors shall be specified in the bylaws.

Article 30 The society shall organize following academic meetings.

  1. Annual Conference.
  2. Regular Conference.
  3. Other meetings approved by the board of councilors.

Article 31 Procedures to organize conferences

  1. There shall be one annual conference per year, and presentations by the members and various lectures shall be given.
  2. The conference committee shall prepare and hold the annual conference. The President shall appoint the chairperson of the committee following the recommendation of the board of councilors. The chairperson of the committee shall appoint the committee members.

Chapter 5. Publications

Article 32 The society shall publish the following periodical publications.

  1. Print editions of the society’s periodical in Japanese, “Journal of the Japanese Coral Reef Society” and the society’s periodical in English, “Galaxea, Journal of Coral Reef Studies” once a year, as a general rule.
  2. Electronic editions of the society’s periodical in Japanese, “Journal of the Japanese Coral Reef Society” and the society’s periodical in English, “Galaxea, Journal of Coral Reef Studies.”
  3. The society’s newsletter, “The Japanese Coral Reef Society Newsletter” issued four times a year.

Article 33 The periodicals described in Article 32 shall be edited by the editorial board and the newsletter editorial board, respectively.

Article 34 Manuscript submission rules (Instructions for authors) shall be prepared by the editorial board and approved by the board of councilors.

Article 35 In case other publications shall be issued, the approval by the board of councilors is required.

Chapter 6. Awards

Article 36 The JCRS Award and the Best Paper Award

  1. To honor research achievements and to encourage researches carried out by the members, the JCRS Award shall be established. The provisions shall be set forth in the bylaws.
  2. The Best Paper Award shall be established to commend excellent papers which are published in the society’s periodicals. The provisions shall be set forth in the bylaws.

Article 37 The society shall be able to commend to encourage coral reef conservation, education and outreach activities.

Chapter 7. Accounting

Article 38 The assets of the society shall consist of membership dues, donations and other revenue. This asset shall be managed by the president and kept by the secretary general. However, the keeping method of the assets shall be decided by the board of councilors.

Article 39 The society shall have the fund which is transferred from the assets after the resolution of the board of councilors. The expenses of the society shall be paid by the interest of the fund, dues, and other revenue.

Chapter 8. Branch

Article 40 The society shall be able to establish branches in local regions. The constitution of a branch shall be enacted by the branch separately. However, the board of councilors must approve them.

Chapter 9. Research Working Group

Article 41 The society shall be able to establish a research working group. The bylaws of a research working group shall be established by the research working group separately. However, the board of councilors must approve them.

Chapter 10. Constitutional amendment and dissolution

Article 42 The Constitution and Bylaws shall not be amended unless more than two-third of the general meeting attendees (including power of attorney and absentee ballots) vote for the amendment.

Article 43 Dissolution of the society requires more than two-thirds of the general meeting attendee’s vote (same as the above article).

Article 44 The remaining asset as the result of the dissolution of the society shall be donated to public service corporations with similar aims to the society after two-thirds of the attendees (same as the above article) vote for the motion.

Supplementary Provisions

  1. The business plan and the budget plan of the first year of the society shall be determined at the establishment general meeting, regardless of the provisions of Article 24.
  2. The inaugural officers of the society shall be appointed by the establishing committee of the society, regardless of the provisions of Article 14, and their terms shall be from the day of establishment to the first regular general meeting.
  3. The first fiscal year of the society shall be from the date of establishment to June 30, 1999.
  4. The society shall commission a part of its business to Mainichi Academic Forum, and detailed statements of postal transfer of annual membership dues and other transactions shall be sent to
  5. The society shall commission a part of its business to Mainichi Academic Forum, and detailed statements of postal transfer of annual membership dues and other transactions shall be sent to
    Mainichi Academic Forum Inc. Japanese Coral Reef Society. Palace Side Building 9F, 1-1-1 Hitotsubashi, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan 100-0003
  6. 6. Revised Article 19, excluding the election in 2005, shall not apply to the councilors who have held office for two or three consecutive terms. After the election in 2007, the revised rules shall apply without exception.

Bylaws of Japanese Coral reef Society

Bylaws of the Japanese Coral Reefs Society Council Election

Article 1 These bylaws are prescribed based on the Constitution of the Japanese Coral Reef Society.

Article 1 These bylaws are prescribed based on the Constitution of the Japanese Coral Reef Society.

  1. Public announcement of elections.
  2. Accepting applications and announcing candidates.
  3. Work regarding voting and ballot counting.
  4. Confirmation and announcement of election results.
  5. Other matters necessary for election administration.

Article 3 The chairperson of the Election Administration Board shall be one of the councilors. The president shall appoint the members of the Election Administration Board following Article 17 (4) of the constitution.

Article 4 All the members, except overseas, newsletter, corporate, and honorary members, (hereinafter referred to as the member) shall be able to be a candidate for the election of the Board of Councilors. Candidates may be recommended by others or by oneself. The self-nominating candidate must submit the candidate name, and the candidate nominated by others must submit the name of the candidate and recommending persons along with the consent letter to the Election Administration Board. The Election Administration Board shall prepare paper ballots clearly bearing the names of candidate.

Article 5 The members other than the candidates are also eligible for election.

Article 6 Twenty seven councilors shall be elected by the following method.

  1. A total of 19 councilor seats shall be divided into two districts and four fields. Remaining eight councilors shall be elected regardless of the district and field.
  2. There shall be two districts: “East District” and “West District” as described below.
    East District: Hokkaido, Tohoku, Kanto, Tokai and Hokuriku (including Aichi, Gifu, and Fukui Prefectures)
    West District: Kansai, Chugoku, Shikoku, Kyushu and Okinawa Prefecture
  3. Four fields are “Geology / Geography,” “Biology / Fisheries,” “Environment / Conservation,” and “Sociology / Culture,” and the number of seats is set as follows
    East District (Total of 10)
    “Geology / Geography”: 2
    “Biology / Fisheries”: 3
    “Environment / Conservation”: 4
    “Sociology / Culture”: 1
    West District (Total of 9)
    “Geology / Geography”: 1
    “Biology / Fisheries”: 4
    “Environment / Conservation”: 3
    “Sociology / Culture”: 1
  4. The members shall cast secret votes on each district and each field, and shall be able to cast as many votes as the number of seats per field in each district.
  5. Candidates receiving the higher number of votes shall fill the given number of seats in each district/each field.
  6. The remaining eight councilors shall be selected from those who did not win the above election, but top eight candidates who received the most votes.
  7. In case of a tie, the winner shall be decided by drawing lots.

Article 7 A candidate’s district and field shall be determined based on the registration, but in principle, the district shall be determined based on the working address of the candidate.

Article 8 If a winner of council election declines the position, then the runner-up shall be elected. If there are more than one runner-up, the winner shall be selected by drawing lots.

Article 9 The bylaws are in effect since November 2, 1997.

Supplementary Provision The revised bylaws are in effect since November 1, 2002.

The Japanese Coral Reefs Society presidential election bylaws

Article 1 These bylaws are prescribed based on the Constitution of the Japanese coral Reef Society.

Article 2 The election administration board shall carry out following work

  1. Public announcement of elections.
  2. Accepting applications and announcing candidates.
  3. Work regarding voting and ballot counting.
  4. Confirmation and announcement of the election results.
  5. Other matters necessary for election administration.

Article 3 The chairperson of the Election Administration Board shall be one of the councilors. The president shall appoint the members of the Election Administration Board following Article 17 (4) of the constitution.

Article 4 Article 14 (2) of the Constitution states that an individual member shall be able to become a candidate for the presidential election. Candidates may be recommended by others or by oneself. The self-nominating candidate must submit the candidate name, and the candidate nominated by others must submit the names of the candidate and the recommending persons along with the consent letter to the Election Administration Board. The Election Administration Board shall prepare paper ballots clearly bearing the candidates’ names.

Article 5 The members other than the candidates are also eligible for election.

Article 6 The president shall be elected by the following method.

  1. The members of the society, except newsletter and corporate members, shall cast a secret ballot in the presidential election. Only one name shall be written on the ballot.
  2. In case of a tie, the winner shall be decided by drawing lots.
  3. If the winner of the presidential election declines the position, then the runner-up shall be elected. If there are more than one runner-up, the winner shall be chosen by drawing lots.

Article 7 The bylaws are in effect since November 13, 2004.

Bylaws of the Board of Councilors

Article 1 The Board of Councilors shall carry out duties prescribed by Article 16 and other articles.

Article 2 Convocation of the Board of Councilors is prescribed by Article 16 (2). In addition, in case more than one-sixth of the total number of the councilors requesting convocation, or a request meeting the clause of Article 26 (3), the president shall convene the Board of Councilors within 30 days of the request.

Article 3 The Board of Councilors shall be formed with more than one-third of the total number of councilors’ attendance, and a resolution shall be passed by the majority votes.

Article 4 The councilors who are unable to attend the meeting shall be able to vote in writing. The councilors who are absent but vote in writing shall be counted as participants.

Article 5 The members have the right to attend the Board of Councilors’ meeting and to speak at the meeting.

Article 6 The Minutes of the Board of Councilors shall include opinions of minorities and must be notified to the members in an appropriate manner.

Article 7 Consent of the Board of Councilors is required to change the bylaws.

Article 8 The bylaws are in effect since October 1, 1998.

Bylaws of Japanese Coral Reefs Society Award

Article 1 The society shall establish the Japanese Coral Reefs Society Award (hereinafter referred to as the JCRS Award). The JCRS Award shall be awarded to a member who has made outstanding achievement in coral reef research. The selection criteria are stated below. It should be noted that following criteria are mainly evaluated in the selection: (1) academic achievement, (2) contribution to the development of coral reef studies in Japan and other social contribution (including conservation, education and human resources development), (3) contribution to the activities of the Japanese Coral Reef Society, (4) contribution to the development of internationality and international coral reef studies and (5) influence on other areas.

Article 2 In order to select candidates for the JCRS Award, the candidate selection subcommittee for the JCRS Award (hereinafter referred to as the subcommittee) shall be established.

Article 3 The subcommittee shall consists of eight members. The chairperson shall be selected by the Board of Councilors, and the chairperson shall nominate seven committee members. The term of the subcommittee members shall be two years. If a conflict of interest occurs among the committee members, the chairperson shall nominate alternate members.

Article 4 The subcommittee shall select one winning candidate, and report to the president with reasons for the selection.

Article 4 The subcommittee shall select one winning candidate, and report to the president with reasons for the selection.

Article 6 The award ceremony shall take place at the general meeting, and the award certificate shall be presented.

Article 7 Consent of the Board of Councilors is required to amend the bylaws.

Article 8 The bylaws are in effect since November 5, 2011.

The Japanese Coral Reef Society Shiro Kawaguchi Award

Article 1 The society shall establish the Japanese Coral Reef Society Shiro Kawaguchi Award (hereinafter referred to as the Kawaguchi Award). The Kawaguchi Award shall be awarded to a young member of the society (38 years old or younger at the end of November of the award receiving year) who has made outstanding academic achievements in coral reef research. The selection criteria are stated below. It should be noted that research achievements shall be evaluated from the viewpoints of creativeness, innovativeness and propagation effects of the research, and the contribution to the activities of the Japanese Coral Reef Society shall be taken into account as well.

Article 2 In order to select candidates for the Kawaguchi Award, a candidate selection subcommittee for the Kawaguchi Award (hereinafter referred to as the subcommittee) shall be established.

Article 3 The subcommittee shall consists of four members. The chairperson shall be selected by the Board of Councilors, and the chairperson shall nominate about three committee members.

Article 4 The subcommittee shall nominate as many as two candidates per year and report to the president with reasons for the selection.

Article 5 The president shall consult with the Board of Councilors about the validity of giving the award to the candidate who is recommended by the subcommittee. More than two-thirds of the total number of councilors’ votes is necessary for the candidate to win the award.

Article 6 The award ceremony shall take place at the general meeting, and the award certificate, prize money and commemorative gift shall be presented.

Article 7 Consent of the Board of Councilors is required to amend the bylaws.

Article 8 The bylaws are in effect since November 5, 2011.

The Japanese Coral Reef Society Best Paper Award

Article 1 The society shall establish the Japanese Coral Reef Society Best Paper Award (hereinafter referred to as the Best Paper Award). The Best Paper Award shall be awarded to the authors of an original paper, a review paper or a short report published in the society’s periodicals in the two previous years from the selection year. The papers shall be selected from the viewpoints of creativeness, innovativeness and propagation effects.

Article 2 In order to select candidates for the Best Paper Award, a candidate selection subcommittee for the Best Paper Award (hereinafter referred to as the subcommittee) shall be established.

Article 3 The subcommittee shall consist of the Editorial Board. The chairperson of the subcommittee shall be appointed by the editor-in-chief.

Article 4 The subcommittee shall nominate as many as two candidates, and report to the president with reasons for the selection.

Article 5 The president shall consult with the Board of Councilors about the validity of giving the award to the candidate paper which is recommended by the subcommittee. More than two-thirds of the total number of councilors’ votes is necessary for the candidate to win the award.

Article 6 The award ceremony shall take place at the general meeting, and the award certificate shall be presented.

Article 7 Consent of the Board of Councilors is required to amend the bylaws.

Article 8 The bylaws are in effect since November 5, 2011.

The Japanese Coral Reef Society Coral Reef Conservation Award

Article 1 The society shall establish the Japanese Coral Reef Society Coral Reef Conservation Award (hereinafter referred to as the Conservation Award). The Conservation Award shall be awarded to the members of the society who have made significant contributions to the conservation of coral reefs through tangible activities, such as environmental education and public awareness, and the purpose of the award is to commend the achievements.

Article 2 The Conservation Award candidates shall be selected by the Japanese Coral Reef Society Reef Conservation Committee.

Article 3 The subcommittee shall consist of the Editorial Board. The chairperson of the subcommittee shall be appointed by the editor-in-chief.

Article 4 The award ceremony shall take place at the general meeting, and the award certificate shall be presented.

Article 5 Consent of the Board of Councilors is required to amend the bylaws.

Article 6 The bylaws are in effect since November 1, 2013.

Bylaws of the Japanese Coral Reef Society Distinguished Service Award

Article 1 The society shall establish the Japanese Coral Reef Society Distinguished Service Award (hereinafter referred to as the Distinguished Service Award). The Distinguished Service Award shall be awarded to individual members or corporate members of the society who have made significant contributions to the conservation, education, public awareness and supporting coral reef research, and the purpose of the award is to commend the achievements.

Article 2 The recommendation by the president shall be consulted with the Board of Councilors. More than two-thirds of the total number of councilors’ votes is necessary for the candidate to win the award.

Article 3 The award ceremony shall take place at the general meeting, and the award certificate and commemorative gifts shall be presented.

Article 4 Consent of the Board of Councilors is required to amend the bylaws.

Article 5 The bylaws are in effect since December 14, 2013.

 
 
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